MUSEION

Preventive conservation of cultural heritage in times of climate change is a serious matter for heritage professionals, especially for countries with a large patrimony or at risk. The MUSEION project propose an IoT platform for monitoring of the museum environment and tackle these challenges.

The project will build on the earlier work carried out by BEIA, SEACON and SAMPAS that focused on technologies for monitoring of environmental parameters, data storage, data processing and development of specific algorithms for data extrapolation and inference, data vizualisation, as well as on research performed by INCTDP-ICPI through its ARCH Lab on mechanisms governing the environment-related deterioration processes of heritage materials and risk assessment of air pollution impacts on CH assets.


Phases and activities

Stage 1. Usage scenarios and functional requirements of the MUSEION system

10/08/2021 – 30/12/2021

Activity 1.1 – Assessment of risks due to adverse effects of climatic conditions and air quality – in which contributions were made regarding the part of risks regarding adverse effects of climatic conditions and air quality, analysis of the importance of the critical risk factor (KRI), which allows a proper monitoring of the conservation conditions in the “Ion Minulescu and Claudia Milian” Memorial House, but also a study on the influence of climate change on environmental factors.

Activity 1.2 – Market study – a market study was carried out regarding the set of IoT systems and platforms used in the field, which lead to a development of public-private partnerships to promote cultural heritage. The IoT approach to art conservation involves installing sensor nodes and Gateways to transfer data to the Cloud. The application of the IoT approach enables online monitoring and continuous surveillance of each work of art, given the access from the Cloud to the data recorded from electronic sensors, improving their safety and preventive conservation.

Activity 1.3 – Analysis and definition of requirements. The design of the system architecture, the monitored environmental parameters were analyzed, as well as an analysis of the conservation records to identify important parameters in the conservation activity. Depending on the materials used (textiles, metals) in the making of works of art, the factors vary, so that certain objects of art have different physical and chemical reactions to the parameters present in the atmosphere. Maintaining a welcoming environment for both visitors and artifacts can be a challenge, as cold temperatures favor the preservation of historic objects by slowing the process of deterioration.

Activity 1.4 – Mockups for various types of materials – detailed analysis of aging processes and identification of resin mixtures used to make varnishes. For these varnishes, mockups from textile materials from the “Ion Minulescu and Claudia Millian” Memorial House were selected.

Activity 1.5 – Communication and dissemination of results – participation in conferences was presented, but also the creation of the project’s web page, as well as the Twitter page.

Results

During stage I, 5 relevant activities were analyzed together with the Romanian partner, namely the I.C.P.I. Institute.  A market study was carried out on the effects of climate change on the environment, but also on the negative risks of these climatic conditions, risks realized on the artefacts. The system architecture, the types of pollutants to be analysed in the project, as well as a market study on cultural heritage and existing IoT platforms were determined. Mockups were made for various organic materials, mockups that are important for heritage. Finally, the stage concluded with the dissemination activity in which the Twitter page of the project, the Internet page of the project, but also the participation in conferences of both parties involved in the project were presented.

Dissemination activities

Project page: http://www.beiaro.eu/museion/

Twitter: https://twitter.com/MuseionProject

Participation in conferences:

  • Smart Cities International Conference (SCIC) – Preceding of the Smart Cities International Conference, edition 9 – the article Artifacts conservation using an IoT system was published. Cristina BALACEANU, Roxana ROȘCĂNEANU, Robert-Alexandru STRECHE, Filip-Emanuel OSIAC, George SUCIU, page 457

1.2 Dissemination of I.C.P.I. results.

Participation in national conferences – oral presentations

  1. Dumitrita Filip, Elena Badea, Cristina Carsote, Emanuel Hadambu, Iulia Caniola, Simona Paunescu, Revealing The History Of The Objects, A Synergy Between Restoration And Chemistry, 4th Museikon Restoration Workshop – Approaches and challenges in the restoration of Russian icons, Workshops of Museikon restoration, 4th edition, Approaches and challenges in the restoration of Russian icons, 29 – 30 September 2021, National Museum of the Union, Alba Iulia
  2. Elena Badea, Cristina Carșote, Lucretia Miu, Claudiu Șendrea – The contribution of the study of materials to the identification of the manufacturing methods of ancient objects, “Doina Darvaș” Conservation – Restoration Conference, XVth Edition, November 4-5, 2021
  3. Emanuel Hadîmbu, Maria-Simona Păunescu, Maria-Cristina Micu, Maria-Iulia Caniola, Cristina Carșote, Elena Badea – Innovative materials for the consolidation of historical and archaeological leather objects, “Doina Darvaș” Conservation – Restoration Conference, XV Edition -a, November 4-5, 2021

Stage II. Development of the MUSEION system

01/01/2022 – 31/12/2022

Activity 2.1 – Development of the specific components of the MUSEION system. Within this activity, the specific components of the MUSEION system for the acquisition, storage and primary processing of data were presented, which ultimately led to the project architecture. Within the MUSEION system, the part of communication protocols, data transmission, monitored parameters were described and analyzed.

Activity 2.2 – Construction of the network of statistical sensors for air quality monitoring. As part of this activity, the construction of static sensor networks for air quality monitoring was implemented. The main sensor networks used as well as their characteristics were analyzed and described. Also within this activity, the location of the pilot where the monitoring process will be carried out along with the objects in the premises was presented.

 Activity 2.3 – Creation of risk profiles for each type of material from the “Liviu and Fanny Liviu Rebreanu” Memorial House location, the aim is to evaluate the materials in situ and create risk profiles. Objects from document collections, graphics, oil painting, icons on glass, icons on wood, textiles and ceramics were identified and classified according to their sensitivity to the environmental conditions in the museum and the related risk.

 Activity 2.4 Development of the specific algorithm for the calculation of the IAQ index, in this activity the algorithm for the calculation of the IAQ is developed, an algorithm in which the agents that dominate the deterioration rate of the materials, and critical risk indicators as well as the sensitivity of the materials to environmental conditions were analyzed from the “Ion Minulescu and Claudia Milian” memorial house.

Activity 2.5 Artificial aging treatments of the mockups – in this stage artificial aging treatments are carried out. The selected materials were subjected to successive cycles of accelerated aging, using specific equipment.

Activity 2.6 Widespread dissemination through national/international communication/publication of the results – the results are disseminated through scientific communications.

Results

During stage II, 6 relevant activities were analyzed. These activities were carried out together with the Romanian partner, namely the ICPI. The specific components of the MUSEION system for the acquisition, storage and primary processing of data were presented, which ultimately led to the project’s architecture. The description of the MUSEION system was also detailed along with the part of the communication protocols and the parameters that are monitored and the way of transmitting the measured data to the visualization process. The sensor networks used as well as their characteristics were presented. An important aspect was the identification of objects from collections of documents, graphics, oil painting, icons on glass, icons on wood, textiles and ceramics. These objects have been classified according to their sensitivity to the environmental conditions in the museum and the related risk. The development and verification of the algorithm for calculating the IAQ index contributed to the determination of the 12 critical risk indicators as well as the sensitivity of the materials to the environmental conditions in the “Ion Minulescu and Claudia Milian” memorial house. The subject of artificial aging treatments by performing accelerated aging tests has been described in detail. Finally, the dissemination part was addressed through participation in conferences and publications.

Dissemination activities

Project page: http://www.beiaro.eu/museion/

Twitter: https://twitter.com/MuseionProject

Dissemination of results through joint scientific communications in international conferences

  • S. Bosoc, F. M. Enescu, O. Orza, E. Hanganu, C. M. Balaceanu and G. Suciu, “IoT system using Blockchain in the conservation and promotion of Cultural Heritage,” 2022 14th International Conference on Electronics, Computers and Artificial Intelligence (ECAI ), 2022, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/ECAI54874.2022.9847411.

Joint-article publication in SCOPUS indexed proceedings

  • Elena Badea, Cristina Carsote, Cristina Mihaela Balaceanu, Oana Orza, Sabina Bosoc, Robert Streche, Zóra Barta, Valéria Tálai, Zsolt Viniczay, Understanding and Controlling the Environmental Quality in Museums through IoT: An International Research and Practice Collaboration to Support Museums in the Implementation of Climate Action – 9th edition of the conference entitled International Conference on Advanced Materials and Systems, 26 – 28 October 2022, DOI: 10.24264/icams-2022.W.1
  • Organization of the MUSEION Workshop, An IoT-based system for understanding and controlling the environmental quality in museums: an INTERNATIONAL Implementation as interaction of RESEARCH, PRACTICE, AND CURRENT EUROPEAN GREEN DEAL, online event, on October 26, within the conference international ICAMS 2022 (The final program can be viewed on the web page: https://www.icams.ro/icams/)

Dissemination of results through common articles

Participation in national conferences

  • Dumitrița Daniela Filip, Cristina Carșote, Elena Badea, Study on the aging behavior of varnish, Museikon restoration workshops with the theme “Varnishes”, 5th edition, 5 October 2022, Alba Iulia
  • Dumitrița Daniela Filip, Cristina Carșote, Elena Badea, Pigments specific to Transylvanian icons painted in the 18th-19th centuries, Annual Scientific Session Dedicated to the National Day of Romania “Unity, Continuity and Independence in the History of the Romanian People”, 24-25 November 2022, National Museum of the Alba Iulia Union.

Participation in international conferences

  • Badea, C. Carsote, E. Hadimbu, C. Benvestito, J. Kodrič, Restoring a restored manuscript: old challenges and new approaches. The Case of St. Mark’s Books, 6th CHEM-CH International Congress – “Chemistry for Cultural Heritage” 2022, July 4-8, 2022, Ravenna, Italy
  • Badea, C. Carșote, D. D. Filip, E.l Hadimbu, I. M. Caniola, S. M. Păunescu, The Russian Icons’ Collection of Museikon: A Study of Materials and Techniques for Understanding the Process of Transfer and Reception of Russian Religious Art in Transylvania, 6th CHEM-CH International Congress – “Chemistry for Cultural Heritage” 2022, July 4-8, 2022, Ravenna, Italy
  • Cristina Carsote, Elena Badea, Maria Iulia Caniola, Emanuel Hadîmbu, Simona Maria Paunescu, Noemi Proietti, Valeria Di Tullio, Zoltán Sebestyén, Zsuzsanna Czégény, Leather and Parchment Preservation – The Power Behind Coupling of Analytical Methods and Data Fusion, al 6- 10th CHEM-CH International Congress – “Chemistry for Cultural Heritage” 2022, July 4-8, 2022, Ravenna, Italy

Social Media

Twitter here.


Acknowledgement

„This work was supported by a grant of the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Digitization, CNCS/CCCDI – UEFISCDI, project number PN-III-P3-3.5-EUK-2019-0211, within PNCDI III”.